An Uplifting Anti-Cancer Terpene Found in Cannabis
by the cannabis access resource & education center
D-limonene, d limonene
10H 16 Classification: Monoterpene
Aromas and Tastes:
L-limonene smells Piney and Turpentine-like
D-limonene has a pleasant, fresh Orange aroma
Could taste Sweet, Sour, Tangy or Bitter
Benefits, Effects, and Indications:
Antifungal, Antibacterial, Anti-cancer, Anti-proliferative, Anxiolytic, Anti-inflammatory, Antidepressant, Immunostimulant
Energetic High, Elevated Mood, Stress Relief, Digestion Aid, Lifts Depression, Weight-loss Aid
Heartburn, Gastric Reflux, Gallstones, Bronchitis, Hypotension, Depression, Anxiety, Cancer, Wounds, Run Down, Infections, Stress, Fibromyalgia
Citrus Peel, Citrus Pulp: Lemon, Lime, Orange, Mandarin, Grapefruit, Tangerine
Peppermint, Mint, Rosemary, Bergamot
Juniper, Pine Sap
Found in Pine, Caraway, and Citrus essential oils
Nature's second common terpene
Used by plants as an insecticide
Formed from Pinene
A major terpene of the cannabis plant
Boosts the high and adds a citrusy taste
Has sedative effects
Used in food, drugs, cosmetics, biotechnology
Can be distilled without decomposition
A relatively stable terpene
Very low solubility in water
Able to permeate proteins
Improves absorption of other substances into Skin, Mucous Membranes, and Digestive Tract
Can cause skin and respiratory irritations Has been found to dissolve gallstones
Reduces tumour size
Preventing breast cancer cell proliferation
Decreases a tumour's ability to create new blood vessels
CBD, CBG, CBN: Anti-cancer
THC-A, CBD-A, CBC-A, CBC, CBC, CBG: Interacts positively
Caryophyllene: Interacts positively
Density at 20 °C: 0.8411 g/cm3
Royal Queen Seeds (RQS), European cannabis breeders, provide an overview of limonene, its medical benefits and studies, and names high limonene strains bred by RQS.
Tisha Casida, advocate for Food and Medicine Freedom and founder of That's Natural!,
teaches consumers the benefits of D-Limonene.
Joe Cohen details research on limonene's benefits:
Boosts Immune System
Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Reduction
Help Relieve Pain
Help with Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity
Reduce Gut Inflammation
Improve Wound Healing and Skin Repair
Limonene: Definition, chemistry, synthesis, smell, taste, properties, effects, studies, publications, and a list of cannabis strains with high limonene content. Part of Grow Shop's Alchimia Blog, dedicated to the self-cultivation of cannabis.
Gooey Rabinski explains that although human studies are still needed, research has indicated limonene fights cancerous tumours in several ways.
Dr. Mitch Earleywine, Professor of Psychology at State University of New York, answers Olive Oyl's question: "I heard that limonene helped cure breast cancer. What strains have it?"
Byron J. Richards, Board Certified Clinical Nutritionist, states dietary supplements of d-Limonene are fruit sourced and goes on to examine:
Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties
Bowel Motility & Digestive Balance of Power
Reflux Indigestion / GERD
Detoxification & Gallstones
Metabolism & Weight Loss
Anxiety, Sleep & Mood
A Novel Nutrient for Breast Cancer Prevention
NF-kappaB is Central to Cell Regulation and Cancer Prevention
Animal Tumor Research
Safety and Absorption of D-Limonene
Did You Know?
Try d-Limonene. Studies have been conducted to evaluate d-Limonene's effectiveness as a heartburn remedy.
D-Limonene may cause skin irritation but otherwise appears to be safe for human uses. It is flammable as a liquid and vapour, and is toxic to aquatic life.
Dr. Brian Penny, whistleblower, writer, and former business analyst breaks down need-to-know limonene facts, its current uses and its possible future:
Terpenes and Cannabinoids
Limonene Sources and Extraction
Known Medicinal Usage
Backing up the medicinal claims for limonene, a cannabis terpene. Discover why research states that consuming limonene can affect allergies, depression, peripheral pain, inflammation, anxiety, anxiety-induced tachycardia, asthma, and cancers. Part of the Cannabis Resource Library by The Cannabis Access Resource and Education Center.
Save On Cannabis states "if Limonene had an astrological sign, it would be Libra." Part of Meet the Terpenes, Save on Cannabis' blog.
What is limonene? An Overview
Popular Cannabis Strains with High Levels of Limonene
Limonene-rich cannabis strains pair well with [food list]
Did You Know?
"d-Limonene is a monoterpene found in high concentration in citrus peel oil. Evidence from animal models and cell culture indicate that it has strong anti-cancer effects, particularly in mammary cancer models."
Dissertation: Bioavailability and Disposition of the Bioactive Food Component D-Limonene, and
Implications for Breast Cancer Prevention.
Authors: Jessica A. Miller, Patricia A. Thompson, Iman A. Hakim, H.-H. Sherry Chow, Cynthia A. Thomson.
Gooey Rabinski, cannabis author and photographer, examines the studies demonstrating limonene can lift depression and battle cancer.
Mitchell Colbert, comedian, writer and medical cannabis patient, informs about limonene's numerous medicinal benefits, its range of commercial and therapeutic uses, and the current research for anxiety, anti-depression, anti-inflammatory, cancer (glioblastoma, prostate, pancreatic, breast, skin), and gastroenteritis.
WebMD, an online source for health information, looks at the supplement limonene:
How does it work?
Special Precautions & Warnings
Bailey Rahn, Leafly editor, lists limonene's benefits, effects, and five cannabis strains with potentially limonene-rich terpene profiles.
Did You Know?
Cannabis strains with names containing words such as citrus, orange, tangerine, grapefruit, lime or lemon most likely contain limonene.
Medical Jane, an online medical cannabis education and resources, summarizes limonene's definition, sources, uses, properties, and studies.