Backing up the Medicinal Claims for Limonene, a Cannabis Terpene
Limonene Research
by the cannabis access resource & education center

Investigated Indications:

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Adenosine A(2A) Receptor Agonist
Depression: Findings by scientists at the College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology in South Korea suggest that limonene can act as a ligand and an agonist for adenosine A(2A) receptors. Limonene directly binds and activates A(2A) on cells, triggering the activity in our nervous systems that help us stay alert, motivated, and positive.
Abstract Only | | 2011
By Eating D-Limonene, Rats Decrease Size of Breast Tumour
Cancer: Limonene has been shown to chemotherapeutic in rats with DMBA- and NMU-induced mammary carcinoma. Oral feeding of limonene results in significant regression of both cancer types in a dose dependent manner.
Abstract Only | | 1986
Contact Rash
Allergy: Studies in animals revealed that air-oxidized d-limonene, but not d-limonene itself, induced contact allergy. Researchers Karlberg, Magnusson, and Nilsson concluded that air oxidation of d-limonene creates potent allergens and is essential for its sensitizing potential.
Abstract Only | | 1992
D-Limonene Controls Inflammation to Prevent Skin Cancer
Cancer: Findings suggest that d-limonene may exert its chemopreventive activity through the inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-signaling as well as initiating tumour cell death during DMBA-induced skin cancer in mouse model.
Abstract Only | | 2012
Peripheral Nervous System Analgesic
Peripheral Pain: Plants and essential oils have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat diverse disorders, including analgesic to pain relief. The authors of a Federal University of Ceará in Bazil study involving mice relate the antinociceptive action of D-limonene with peripheral analgesia and not with the stimulation of opioids receptors.
Abstract Only | | 2007
Reduces Wheezing
Asthma: Limonene has a potential to reduce airway remodeling (structural changes in the airway walls) and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma model. The goblet cell metaplasia, thickness of airway smooth muscle, and airway fibrosis were markedly decreased in limonene-treated mice.
Abstract Only | | 2012
Relaxing with the Aroma of D-Limonene
Anxiety-induced Tachycardia: Study subjects were exposed to D-Limonene's odour for 90 seconds while sitting with their eyes closed. Results obtained clearly indicate that olfactory stimulation with D-Limonene induced both physiological and psychological relaxation. [PDF 6p]
Scholarly Article | | 2014
Terpenes, D-Limonene, NF-kappaB Signaling
Inflammation: A number of terpenoids, such as limonene, are reported to inhibit the NF-kB and MAPK pathways simultaneously and further the suppression of inflammatory responses.
Abstract Only | | 2008