Backing up the Medicinal Claims for Limonene, a Cannabis Terpene
by the cannabis access resource & education center
Ever used a citrus degreaser? They contain limonene - the major component in citrus peel oil. Like human hands, limonene exists in two forms that mirror each other: D- and L-limonene. To us, the one smells like citrus, the other like pine and turpentine! #PhytochemicalFridaypic.twitter.com/BC5ceevk9p
Depression: Findings by scientists at the College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology in South Korea suggest that limonene can act as a ligand and an agonist for adenosine A(2A) receptors. Limonene directly binds and activates A(2A) on cells, triggering the activity in our nervous systems that help us stay alert, motivated, and positive.
Study: Limonene, a natural cyclic terpene, is an agonistic ligand for adenosine A(2A) receptors.
Authors: Park HM, Lee JH, Yaoyao J, Jun HJ, Lee SJ.
Cancer: Limonene has been shown to chemotherapeutic in rats with DMBA- and NMU-induced mammary carcinoma. Oral feeding of limonene results in significant regression of both cancer types in a dose dependent manner.
Study: Regression of rat primary mammary tumors following dietary d-limonene.
Allergy: Studies in animals revealed that air-oxidized d-limonene, but not d-limonene itself, induced contact allergy. Researchers Karlberg, Magnusson, and Nilsson concluded that air oxidation of d-limonene creates potent allergens and is essential for its sensitizing potential.
Study: Air oxidation of d-limonene (the citrus solvent) creates potent allergens.
Cancer: Findings suggest that d-limonene may exert its chemopreventive activity through the inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-signaling as well as initiating tumour cell death during DMBA-induced skin cancer in mouse model.
Study: D-Limonene Modulates NF-KappaB Inflammatory Pathways to Inhibit Skin Cancer.
Authors: Chaudhary S, Siddiqui M, Athar M, Alam MS.
Peripheral Pain: Plants and essential oils have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat diverse disorders, including analgesic to pain relief. The authors of a Federal University of Ceará in Bazil study involving mice relate the antinociceptive action of D-limonene with peripheral analgesia and not with the stimulation of opioids receptors.
Study: Antinociceptive effect of the monoterpene R-(+)-limonene in mice.
Authors: do Amaral JF, Silva MI, Neto MR, Neto PF, Moura BA, de Melo CT, de Araújo FL, de Sousa DP, de Vasconcelos PF, de Vasconcelos SM, de Sousa FC.
Asthma: Limonene has a potential to reduce airway remodeling (structural changes in the airway walls) and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma model. The goblet cell metaplasia, thickness of airway smooth muscle, and airway fibrosis were markedly decreased in limonene-treated mice.
Anxiety: The data by researchers at Federal University of Paraíba in Brazil indicates that limonene could be used in aromatherapy as an anti-anxiety agent. Anxiolytic-like effects of sweet orange aroma have been shown in Wistar rats. The major chemical component (96.24%) of this oil is the monoterpene limonene.
Study: Anxiolytic-like activity and GC-MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants.
Authors: Lima NG, De Sousa DP, Pimenta FC, Alves MF, De Souza FS, Macedo RO, Cardoso RB, de Morais LC, Melo Diniz MD, de Almeida RN.
Anxiety-induced Tachycardia: Study subjects were exposed to D-Limonene's odour for 90 seconds while sitting with their eyes closed. Results obtained clearly indicate that olfactory stimulation with D-Limonene induced both physiological and psychological relaxation. [PDF 6p]
Study: Physiological and psychological effects of olfactory stimulation with D-Limonene
Authors: D. Joung, C. Song, H. Ikei, T. Okuda, M. Igarashi, H. Koizumi, B.J. Park, T. Yamaguchi, M. Takagaki, Y. Miyazaki